The Society of Friend’s Views on Life and Slavery
The Society of Friend’s, more commonly known as the Quakers, is a protestant organization that has a history dating back to the seventeenth century. Only three organizations pre-date them: the Baptists, Episcopalians, and Congregationalists. George Fox, a preacher of the Quakers, had been preaching prior to founding the Quakers; 1652 is a common agreement on the beginnings of the Quakers in England, but in 1656 Fox and some of his followers began entering America. The Quakers, who many people associate with Pennsylvania and the Amish Country, was treated like many other emigrants coming to America. Throughout the course of history it is important the people understand how the Quakers received their start in America, how Pennsylvania became the typical American thought when Quakers are mentioned, and one must also understand their religious backgrounds. Upon diving into research there is much to learn about the Quakers and their beliefs. The Society of Friends, as many other churches and denominations, seemed to have evolved to a certain degree in order to make it in America upon their migration, and also to deal with American issues such as war. Throughout history Quakers have been thought to be a completely simplistic and peaceful group of individuals; however, when dealing with war and some American issues, that was not always the case.
The Quakers had their rise in England and during their early years produced vast amounts of literature. In their beginnings they produced journals, letters, George Fox wrote his sermons, biographies and pamphlets. However, the most commonly read was the journals of George Fox and William Penn. They mainly wrote down their beliefs with scriptures that backed them up. However, they also wrote about their interests which consisted of education. Quakers viewed education as an important aspect of a community and had four types of schools: elementary, secondary, college and adult schools. In these schools they taught not only the typical education but they also included religious education as well. Quaker education taught four different social doctrines: community, pacifism, equality, and simplicity. Mr. Brinton said that the Quaker education has a threefold task [in educating people] it must be at once authoritative, rational, and mystical, with emphasis on the authoritative in childhood, on the rational in youth, and on the mystical in maturity; therefore, aiding in the spread of Quakerism and the continued devotion to the Quaker beliefs.
With the Quakers becoming a well-educated group early in their life as an organization; many of the first followers were able to write down and record their personal beliefs when they came to America. The Quakers believed that children were born innocent and remained so until they committed a sin, which all children had an evil and sinful tendency because of Adam’ fall in the Garden of Eden. Quakers also believed that logic was subject to reason and reason was corrupt. Logic, words, reason, natural experience, and conscience could not give man any right understand of anything to do with religion; therefore, establishing the key to Quakerism which deals with the inward light of Christ.  The inward light of Christ was how the Quakers believed that God communicated with their people. Through the light, God would communicate his will, and lead the Quakers to do what God wanted them to do, and without God their light was contaminated. Realizing at this point the confusion that existed, the Quakers solved the problem of uncertainty in their religion by making all of the faith equal to God; God had to have some agency within a man by which he could infallibly let him know his will, which was faith and grace.
While the Quakers were the first to become widely known to believe the doctrine of inner or inward light it was no new teaching, but it had become nearly extinct before the Quakers picked up on it. The inward light meant that in every man there is something that answers to God’s message or call, and which, if followed, will lead them to Christ. That became the cardinal teaching of the Quakers, and calls for a system of worship which will afford opportunity for individual communion with God, as well as for the exercise of individual gifts; this is the reason and the necessity for the Quakers meeting in complete silence.
The Quakers were in agreement that man could not do work by himself without it being corrupt but insisted that the light of God working through man could produce sinless acts. However, for the Quakers the Bible was a subordinate to the light of God within. “The Scriptures are only a declaration of the fountain, and not the fountain itself, therefore they are not to be esteemed the principal ground of all truth and knowledge, nor yet the adequate primary rule of faith and manners.”  The same Spirit that directed the biblical writers was also the same Spirit that could inspire them. Their argument was that, “if the Spirit had been able to inspire men to perfection in the writing of Scripture, then the Spirit could also teach men the absolutely correct interpretation.”  The Quakers said that the light always remained the same, and that the same grace that gave Paul the ability to do miracles also gave George Fox the same rights not because of the intrinsic merit of Fox, but because of the power of God’s Spirit.
George Fox, who lived from 1624 until 1691, and was one of the first Quakers to come to America, as well as being the founder of Quakerism did not preach such a light. However, he did “preach everywhere on all fitting occasions, as the Light, the Companion, the Guide, the Teacher, the Comforter of man, was the Light of Christ in the heart.”  William Penn stated
“That which the people called Quakers lay down as a main fundamental in Religion is that God, through Christ, hath placed a Principal in every man to inform him of his duty; and to enable him to do it; and that those who live up to his Principle are the people of God; and that those who live in dishonor to it are not God’s people whatever name they may bear or profession they may make of religion. This is their ancient, first and standing testimony, with this they began and this they bore and do bear to the world.”
William Penn is talking about the Principles of the Quakers, which he later refers to those Principles as being the Light of Christ within man. From William Penn one can understand the importance of the Light of Christ to the people of the Quaker organization. The Quakers were more extreme with their belief in the direct, personal presence of the Spirit and the guidance of the inner light. They believed that the Spirit was the authoritative guide to religion. According to Thomas Taylo’s Domesticity of Friends, the Quaker home became the first place to nurture the divine Light that God had given each child; therefore each child was raised believing and seeking the light of Christ.
In contrast to the Baptist who placed the Scriptures as an authoritative guide, the Quakers used the Bible as a personal guide. The Quakers did not completely reject the Bible, but they did believe that the Bible was to be used on a personal level verses an authoritative level; meaning that the inward light took precedence over the Bible. The inward light was the way in which God dealt with an individual; therefore, the authors of the Bible had the inward light in order to be able to record their accounts. Although, they did not have the belief that demanded a clear biblical basis they did expect others to have clear proof of their belief based upon the biblical texts since they used as their authoritative guide.
To the Quakers, the experience of the inward light plus the undercurrent of biblical literalism gave them the confidence that they could live Christian lives. While their theology began with, was structured by, and concluded with the inward light of Christ. All of these words were essential and their experience was inward; therefore, subject to no external proof.  Instead they claimed authority based on the same power which had been the sole arbiter of the apostles for the early church. The Quakers knew God’s Will and God never changes, all knowledge from God, whether in Scripture or in the writings of early Quakers, had to agree. Through grace, grace being light and brought through knowledge, and since the inward light was of Christ, the subjective illumination was equal to the revelation of God that was described in the New Testament. 
The difference between Puritan and Quaker is that for the Puritans the Scripture is valid for political as well as religious life; the Quakers acknowledged the Bible but insisted upon the Spirit which produced it as the true interpreter and abiding source of continuing revelation. For the Quaker if the Inner Light is not only in one individual or another, it is also inherent in nature and society, but it is argued that if this process is through nature what the point of education is when God will lead the Quakers through Inner Light. However, even where that view of education exists there is still the need for education, but to Quakers there must exist a guarded education. 
In Quakerism, they seemingly rejected the Bible; therefore, it is only natural for them to reject Bible societies’ as well that referenced the Bible as being the “Word of God.” The Word of God they reserved only for Jesus Christ himself; however, in doing so, the Quaker efforts to maintain their own identity and beliefs in an evangelical religious culture posed benevolent activity.
For the Quakers there was nothing in the Bible demanding that the language be absolutely consistent grammatically, but all Quakers insisted that addressing a single person as “you” was a sin. The point this makes is that there is no defense of the Quakers testimony in the Bible, but there was no Bible verse that commanded using you either. Richard Bauman, in Let your Words be Few, studies in depth the silence of the Quakers. In his study he takes into account the limits of language in both the unsaid and the unsayable. Those words that we think of but don’t say for whatever reason verses the words that we can’t say because what we have already said excludes them. To the Quakers, “silence is what disciplines speech, what lets it be ‘plain’ speech rather than needless, inaccurate blithering.”  Bauman also continues to say that “Silence, inner-language, authority, and emotion are pretty much excluded by a picture of language as a code; but they are all central to even the plainest speaking” when concerning groups such as the Quakers.
Due to the lack of speaking amongst Quakers within a community; there is little unity about how to express them. The Quaker faiths and practices, enumerates the main issues that Quakers agree are important: worship, the ministry of all believers, decision making through spiritual unity, simplicity, and education. However, the question then arises on how they go about this and agree upon such vital things when there is little agreement amongst how to express the important issues.  That is not an easy question to answer, however one might offer that it was simply the process of changing times and changing people, even with the simplest of the kind.
With a little of their common belief systems established, backtracking to George Fox when he initially began preaching he did not anticipate setting up a new denomination. All Fox was centered on was that his message was for all men, and that in order to get the message across it would not be compatible with an existing church policy and practice; therefore, resulting in the creation of Quakerism. For the most part when the democratic organization was instituted it remained consistent, only slight alteration in details has taken place and allowed the Quakers to exist until the present. 
While much of the early emigration into America is related to England’s monarchy and the ways in which England was persecuting people because of their religions; that does not necessarily hold true for the Quakers. Thomas Tyalo discusses in Domesticity of Friends that the markets of their home place in England, and the response of upland middling, religious zealots to their reliance upon kinship clusters, household ties and friends; that there was simply too little wealth in middling preindustrial north-western British households for the Quakers to live financially.
Quakerism in America took hold before the year 1683; however, the main spur of events occurred after. In 1683, the Quakers in America heard of William Penn who was a Friend, had obtained a patent from King Charles II for the Province in America called Pennsylvania.  William Penn after settling Pennsylvania began sending letters of invitation back to other Quakers that were still in England urging them to move to America, and because they were unable to rely sufficiently on the generosity of strangers, or the domesticity of Friends, many moved to America because of financial reasons. After this land was acquired by a Quaker, those in other areas could retreat to Pennsylvania to escape the intolerant religious sections of the Early Colonial America. Anne Hutchinson who was an early settler trying to get to America described in numerous writings on how the Quakers were beaten, their belongings striped from them, and the next thing that they knew they were back on a ship headed for England. Particularly, the Quaker persecutions in Boston were severe and consisted of imprisonments, floggings, hangings, etc. as soon as the Quakers arrived to America.
The Quakers before arriving in Boston had already grown to hold a bad reputation. Not that their actions were disorderly, but because of their religion and the mainly Puritan disagreement. The Puritans could not understand how the Quakers were serenely sure of themselves and how profound they were that they were right and God was with them. Being an unconventional group that was settling in a section of America who had no religious tolerance made it difficult; however, some Quakers were able to make landfall in Rhode Island where the residents accepted numerous religions. One might go as far as to say if it wasn’t for the founding settlers in Rhode Island the Quakers would have gotten their start in America.
Another reason that Quakerism in America began rather rough was their views on the Church. Quakers believed that the Church was superfluous and distracting. Their argument for this was that the Holy Spirit and the true light of Christ would move and take over a person’s life thus telling them what God’s will was. Therefore, a Church was a meeting for an organization where they all were told what to do in life, and that it was not necessarily God’s will that they were following, but the Churches.  Quakers did not take part in a Church until they realized that “Christ would not send His disciples where He Himself does not lead. “Follow me” has been forever His watchword. Shall not, then, the Christian Church follow its Leader with perfect loyalty along this path?”  This however took several years after they first began settling in America and only after they had settled in Pennsylvania.
While the majority of Quakers in America were located in Pennsylvania some later travelled to Philadelphia. These Philadelphia Quakers had the opportunity to gain respect from other people and demonstrate the truth of Quaker principles so that they would be able to get along better. They did this after their divorce from political power in Pennsylvania in the 1750s. Initially, the people were going to go back to England and removing themselves from the New World all together, but decided to stay in America and hoped to maintain an outward and public influence upon Philadelphia’s religious culture. 
The Philadelphia Quakers were able to do well after leaving Pennsylvania for a while, but in 1775 with the outbreak of the American Revolution they created an abolition society whose activities disturbed Washington. For the most part the Quakers were inactive during the Revolution, but then revived again in 1784 after it was over with. In 1787 the abolition society was reorganized on a broader basis as the Pennsylvania Abolition Society, and held Benjamin Franklin as the honorary president. By 1790, the society sent a petition to Congress urging immediate steps to be taken to end the slave trade. The petition was referred to a committee by the House of Representatives, but a friend of Washington by the name of David Stuart warned Washington that the Quaker petition was upsetting sectional harmony and creating “A spirit of Jealousy.” 
The American Revolution had numerous impacts on the Quakers. The Quakers in Pennsylvania began to give their children membership into the Society of Friends based upon birthright membership. However, the new view of the Quaker church that emerged from the Revolutionary years were more shocking. The Quakers began to reach out and offer social services to the Indians. This was the first time that Quakers had really sent out any missionaries that felt they had been called to do resident missionary work. The Quakers were very willing to send out the missionaries, but feared that in the distant future they would no longer want to enlarge the Society of Friends. 
Another impact of the American Revolutionary war, with the petition being sent to Washington by the Quakers, was Joseph Drinker’s letter that significantly pleaded with the Quaker society. Joseph Drinker who was not a key figure in Philadelphia Quakerism, and his brother Henry Drinker, had been exiled to Virginia during the Revolution was just a simple Friend who was moved by the inconsistency of the Quakers. He believed that there was inconsistency between the profession and practice of Quakers, and spoke out against the exclusion of colored people from their religious society. Drinker was not the first Quaker to speak out against slaveholding, John Woolman and Anthony Benezet had condemned slaveholding by Friends as unchristian prior, but nothing was done to change the slavery among the Quakers. Drinker pleaded for the admission of people to the Society of Friends regardless of their color in 1795, twelve years after the 1783 yearly meeting had decided that the application of a woman of white, Indian and negro origin on the same round in common with the other applications for admission into the membership. However, with Drinker’s plea there was a divide amongst the Quakers, as with the white there were numerous wealthy Quakers who owned slaved and needed them for labor and to help on the farms, as well as the poor who did not own any slaves and viewed slaveholding as being an unchristian act.
The Quakers were like any other church organizations; they eventually found differences amongst each other and began to split apart creating different denominational groups. Quaker benevolence and benevolent activity continued through the 1840s and 1850s that pushed Friends in different direction. Philadelphia’s Quakers embraced voluntarism but only to experience the denominational splintering first hand that characterized the nineteenth-century. 
One group of Friends called the Hicksite Friends had between sixty and seventy percent of the Philadelphia’s Quakers antislavery societies during the 1830s. The Hicksite Friends put aside their traditional views on worldly or outside associations to express extreme outrage of the injustice of southern slavery and the sinful support of the institution in the North. This separation made them less fearful of outward corruption, freeing them up to join with non-Quakers in abolitionist societies. 
During the 1840s Quakers began to change their views on civil government. Quakers denounced all war as contrary to the Gospel prior to the 1840s; however, they also began to realize that civil government might be meant as an ordinance of heaven. “We have before us a new confirmation of our views respecting the consistency of peace and civil government” was written in a document issued by “the Representatives of the Yearly Meeting of the Society of Friends for New England.” This document was intended to confound their views on peace with the assertion that their belief in all war is wrong still existed. “We do indeed believe that war and fighting are contrary to the Divine will and unlawful for us as Christians—and we cannot, therefore, in any way, countenance or contribute to military operations.” 
Even with the disagreement on slavery the Quakers still held true to their beliefs and refused to fight in war against slavery. However, they had the initiative to not allow slaveholders to becoming members of the Quakers. Quakers also began convincing other whites from other denominations of the sinfulness in racial prejudice. Many of the Quaker “come outers” began pointing out the injustice of the customary use of the “negro pew” within Quaker churches.
Quakers at this point began taking steps toward Anti-Slavery. They began publishing pamphlets advising slaves in the South to “obtain your liberty without violence” and declared that slaves were “under no obligation to endure slavery one moment longer.”  After these began being published, a Quaker by the name of Thomas Garrett, began to take matters into his own hands and created an Underground Railroad type of route for the slaves trying to escape slavery. Garrett was able to help over 2,000 slaves to freedom by the mid-1850s; however, the president of the Underground Railroad said himself that “slavery can never be remedied on principles which assume the legitimacy of a slavemaster’s right to human property.”  However, “come outers” such as Garrett hoped that they would be able to revolutionize the American state by creating church communities that were completely divorced from “supporting…the institutions of a slaveholding government.” 
Realizing the work of Garrett and other Quakers by 1861 nearly all of the Quakers were anti-slavery and strong supporters of Abraham Lincoln. By the time the Civil War broke out they were supporting Lincoln to the point even to the bearing of arms by many of their young men, to defend the Union and put down slavery. “The late Henry W. Wilbur is reported to have said that our branch of the Society of Friends furnished more soldiers to the Union army in proportion to our total membership than any other denomination.”  Being a complete shift in the belief of Quakers to remain nonviolent and all war being against their religious beliefs; however, they still believe that all Quakers should do their best to support the Government in all ways to be able to make the world “free for Democracy and a safe place for the little nations.”  Therefore, it is now acceptable if a Quakers should feel that it is their duty to enter into military service they cannot be condemned because it is the right of the individual person and their consciousness’.
“As the shadow of war crept over the land, paralysis gripped the Society of Friends’. When the Civil War broke out, many young Quakers, North and South refused to serve, some paid for substitutes, a few volunteered. Quakers prayed for Lincoln, as they had voted for him. Like him they bore no malice towards the defeated South, they urged leniency on President Johnson, they did magnificent service in caring for Freedmen. Nevertheless, as Dr. Drake points out, the victory over slavery was won by others following a policy not approved by the Society of Friends. That policy, however, left a legacy of racial hatred, social dislocation, and economic distress from which the South has never wholly recovered. In any case, nothing can deprive the Quakers of the credit for initiating the anti-slavery movement, of securing its less spectacular successes, of putting their own house in order, without forcing others to do the same. And perhaps the appeal to force was not the best way after all.” 
During the Civil War period there were changes taking place within the Quaker society. Dr. Weeks points out that it was a southward moving tide of Quakers that was almost identical to the movement of the Scotch-Irish migration. He illustrates that it began in Pennsylvania and moved over the same territory, and left a permanent impression on Pennsylvania. However, he continues to say that “It did not have a southern wing coming in at Charleston, as did the Scotch-Irish; it did not spread over the whole country; but it also stood for education, morality and religion; it did not bring the sword, and it did not seek political advancement” but Quakerism was growing and moving.  During the Civil War nearly six thousand Quakers migrated from the south because they did not believe in war and fighting; although, they were given the permission by the Yearly Meetings.
The development of the Quakers in the New South was from a small handful beginning in 1865 to a large thriving group by the 1920s. The growth is explained by Damon D. Hickey as being a result of the rooted struggles of early Quakerism with social acceptance and slaveholding in antebellum America. The struggle to end slavery was also described as being examples of sacrifices and sufferings of those Quakers who opposed the enslavement of blacks. However, Quakers during their low point in 1865 had only 1,797 members in the North Carolina Yearly Meeting, but by 1920 those numbers had grown to 9,046. This was due to their leadership effectively adopting and altering evangelical revival strategies to their own ends. However, as many denominations currently struggle to maintain their members, Quakers had to delicately balance the meetings faced in the South on how to maintain membership through conversion and keep the converts once they joined. 
In the 1960s, there were nearly 200,000 Quakers worldwide, with sixty percent of them living in the United States. Quakers are likely to think of themselves as fiercely independent, proudly claiming that no Quaker “prescribes the kind of flag another Quaker carries. Or drum or piccolo.” Quakers still seek the Inner Light in their relationships with God and with other people and have concerns with Peace, Love, Family, Educations, Environment, Equality of Sexes and Races, Prison Reform, Justice, Simplicity, Integrity, and Caring. As Christians the Quakers are striving for a warless world, firmly convinced that this can be achieved only by refusal to participate in war, simply and sufficiently because war is by its very nature at variance with the message, the spirit and the life and death of Jesus Christ. The Quakers also unite to supporting treaties of arbitration and conciliation, limitations and reduction of armaments, international courts of justice, and a league or association of nations for the preservation of peace. 
Quakers while characterized as being “Quaint slightly old-fashioned types who meet in silence on First-Day morning to await the leadings of God’s Spirit, worship in this traditional way are a distinct minority among American Friends.”  At their last meeting on Wednesday, June 8th, 2011 there was a membership count of 358,923 with the distribution of: 43 percent being in Africa, 30 percent being in North America, 17 percent in the Caribbean and Latin America, 6 percent being in Europe and the Middle East, and 4 percent being in Asia-West Pacific. In conclusion, the Quakers had a difficult beginning; however, through the initial preaching of George Fox to the leadership of Thomas Garrett, the Quakers have become a vital religious organization in America as well as a worldwide group of Friends.
A.T.M. “Quakers and Slavery in America .” The English Historical Review (Oxford University Press) 67, no. 262 (January 1952): 142.
Aptheker, Herbert. “The Quakers and Negro Slavery.” The Journal of Negro History (Association for the Study of African American Life and History, Inc. ) 25, no. 3 (July 1940): 331-362.
Bacon, Margaret. The Quiet Rebels . Philadelphia, Pennsylvania : New Society Publishers , 1985.
Bauman, Richard. Let Your Words Be Few. Prospect Heights, Illinois: Waveland Press , 1983.
Bauman, Richard. “Let Your Words Be Few: Symbolism of Speaking and Silence among Seventeenth-Century Quakers .” Language (Linguistic Society of America ) 61, no. 4 (December 1985): 916-918.
Boller, Paul F. “Washington, The Quakers, and Slavery .” The Journal of Negro History (Association for the Studdy of African American Life and History, Inc. ) 46, no. 2 (April 1961): 83-88.
Calvert, Jane E. “The Quakers in America .” The Journal of Religion (The University of Chicago Press ) 84, no. 4 (October 2004): 615-617.
Coon, Arthur. “Quaker Education in Theory and Practice .” Journal of Bible and Religion (Oxford University Press) 9, no. 2 (May 1941): 137.
D.M.W. “A Sociological Analysis of the Theology of Quakers: The Silent Revolution .” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion (Blackwell Publishing ) 37, no. 4 (December 1998): 773.
Dalglish, Doris. People Called Quakers . Freeport , New York : Books for Libraries Press , 1938.
Dorsey, Bruce. “Friends Becoming Enemies: Philadelphia Benevolence and the Neglected Era of American Quaker History .” Journal of the Early Republic (University of Pennsylvania Press) 18, no. 3 (1998): 395-428.
Drinker, Joseph, and Thomas Drake. “Joseph Drinker’s Plea for the Admission of Colored People to the Society of Friends, 1795.” The Journal of Negro History (Association for the Study of African American Life and History, Inc. ) 32, no. 1 (January 1947): 110-112.
Endy, Melvin B. “Quakers in the Colonial Northeast .” The William and Mary Quarterly, Third Series (Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture ) 39, no. 3 (July 1982): 545-546.
Fenn, W.W. “The Quakers in American Colonies .” The American Historical Review (The University of Chicago Press ) 17, no. 3 (April 1912): 618-621.
Frost, William J. “The Dry Bones of Quaker Theology .” Church History (Cambridge University Press ) 39, no. 4 (December 1970): 503-523.
Harkness, R.E.E. “Early Relations of Baptists and Quakers.” Church History (Cambridge University Press) 2, no. 4 (December 1933): 227-242.
Hopkins, Jerry. “Sojourners No More: The Quakers in the New South, 1865-1920.” Church History (Cambridge University Press ) 67, no. 4 (December 1998): 817-818.
Hurwich, Judith. “the Social Origins of the Early Quakers .” Past and Present (Oxford University Press), no. 48 (August 1970): 156-162.
Illick, Joseph. “Quakers and Politics: Pennsylvania .” The William and Mary Quarterly, Third Series (Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture ) 26, no. 2 (April 1969): 292-295.
Ingle, H. Larry. “The Quakers in America .” The Journal of American History (Organization of American Historians ) 91, no. 3 (December 2004): 1098-1099.
Ireland, Owen. “Quakers and Slavery: A Divided Spirit.” The William and Mary Quarterly, Third Series (Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture) 44, no. 1 (January 1987): 139-141.
James, Sydney V. “The Impact of the American Revolution on Quakers’ Ideas about Their Sect .” The William and Mary Quarterly, Third Series (Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture ) 19, no. 3 (July 1962): 360-382.
Jenkins, Howard. “Southern Quakers and Slavery: A Study in Institutional History .” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science (Sage Publications, Inc. ) 8 (September 1896): 192-194.
Jordan, Ryan. “Quakers, “Comeouter,” and the Meaning of Abolitionism in the Antebellum Free States .” Journal of the Early Republic (University of Pennsylvania Press) 24, no. 4 (2004): 587-608.
Kennedy, Thomas. “The Quakers: Money and Morals .” The William and Mary Quarterly, Third Series (Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture ) 56, no. 1 (January 1999): 196-198.
Khoury, Philip. “Quakers and Compassion.” Journal of Palestine Studies (University of California Press) 12, no. 2 (1983): 72-76.
Laughlin, S.B. Beyond Dilemmas: Quakers Look At Life . Washington, New York : Kennikat Press, 1937.
Levick, James. “The Early Welsh Quakers and Their Emigration to Pennsylvania .” The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography (The Historical Society of Pennsylvania ) 17, no. 4 (1893): 385-413.
Lindley, Harlow. “Society of Friends .” The Journal of Religion (The University of Chicago Press) 13, no. 3 (July 1933): 342-343.
Moore, Willard. “The Preferred and Remembered Image: Cultural Change and Artifactual Adjustment in Quaker Meetinghouses .” Perspectives in Vernacular Architecture (Vernaccular Architecture Forum) 2 (1986): 120-128.
Park, Charles. “Puritans and Quakers .” The New England Quarterly (The New England Quarterly, Inc. ) 27, no. 1 (March 1954): 53-74.
Pillis, Mario S. De. “Quakers on the American Frontier.” The American Historical Review (The University of Chicago Press ) 76, no. 2 (April 1971): 557.
QICadmin. Distribution of Quakers in the World . n.d. http://www.quakerinfo.org/resources/statistics (accessed April 20, 2012).
Taylo, Thomas. “The Domesticity of Friends .” Reviews in American History (The Johns Hopkins University Press ) 17, no. 3 (September 1989): 371-377.
Thatcher, Albert. “The Quakers’ Attitude Toward War .” The Advocate of Peace (1894-1920) (World Affairs Institute ) 79, no. 8 (August 1917): 238-239.
“The New England “Friends” on Peace .” The American Advocate of Peace and Arbitration (World Affairs Institute ) 53, no. 7 (October-November 1891): 184.
“The Quakers’ Call to the Churches .” Advocate of Peace through Justice (World Affairs Institute ) 84, no. 11 (November 1922): 394-395.
Thomas, Allen. “Present Tendencies in the Society of Friends in America .” The Journal of Religion (The University of Chicago Press) 1, no. 1 (January 1921): 30-46.
Trent, W.P. “Southern Quakers and Slavery.” The American Historical Review (The University of Chicago Press ) 2, no. 1 (October 1896): 178-181.
Vann, Richard. “For the Reputation of Truth: Politics, Religion, and Conflict among the Pennsylvania Quakers .” The Journal of Interdisciplinary History (The MIT Press ) 3, no. 4 (1973): 778-781.
Vann, Richard. “Nurture and Conversion in the Early Quaker Family.” Journal of Marriage and Family (National Council on Family Relations ) 31, no. 4 (November 1969): 639-643.
“Views of Quakers on Civil Government.” The Advocate of Peace (1837-1845) (World Affairs Institute ) 4, no. 3 (October 1841): 69-71.
 Allen Thomas, Present Tendencies of Friends in America, Page 30.
 Arthur Coon, Quaker Education, page 137.
 William J. Frost, The Dry Bones of Quaker, page 506
 William J. Frost, The Dry Bones of Quaker, page 508
 William J. Frost, The Dry Bones of Quaker, page 510
 Allen Thomas, Present Tendencies of Friends in America, page 32
 William J. Frost, The Dry Bones of Quaker, page 518
 William J. Frost, The Dry Bones of Quaker, page 520
 Quakers Emigration to Pennsylvania, page 399
 Quakers Emigration to Pennsylvania, page 399
 R.E.E. Harkness, Early Relations of Baptists and Quakers, page 240
 William J. Frost, The Dry Bones of Quaker, page 522
 William J. Frost, The Dry Bones of Quaker, page 523
 W. W. Fenn, Quakers in American Colonies, page 620
 Bruce Dorsey, Friends Becoming Enemies, page 405
 William J. Frost, The Dry Bones of Quaker, page 522.
 Richard Bauman, Let your Words Be Few, page 916.
 Richard Bauman, Let Your Words Be Few, page 918
 Jane E. Calvert, The Quakers in America, page 616.
 Allen Thomas, Present Tendencies of Friends in America, page 30
 Thomas Taylo, Domesticity of Friends, page 372
 Quakers Emigration to Pennsylvania, page 404
 Thomas Taylo, Domesticity of Friends, page 372
 Charles Park, Puritans and Quakers, page 70
 Charles Park, Puritans and Quakers, page 73
 Quakers Call to the Church, page 394
 Bruce Dorsey, Friends Becoming Enemies, page 401
 Paul Boller, Washington the Quakers and Slavery, page 85
 Sydney V. James, Impact of the American Revolution, page 381
 Joseph Drinker and Thomas Drake, Admission of Colored People, page 111.
 Bruce Dorsey, Friends Becoming Enemies, page 423
 Brucce Dorsey, Friends Becoming Enemies, page 423
 Views of Quakers on Civil Government, page 69
 Views of Quakers on Civil Government, page 69
 Ryan Jordan, Quakers, Comeouters, page 597
 Ryan Jordan, Quakers, Comeouters, page 603
 Ryan Jordan, Quakers, Comeouters, page 603
 Ryan Jordan, Quakers, Comeouters, page 604
 Albert Thatcher, The Quakers Attitude Toward War, page 238
 Albert Thatcher, The Quakers Attitude Toward War, page 239
 A.T.M., Quakers and Slavery in America, page 142
 Howard Jenkins, Southern Quakers and Slavery: A Study in Institutional History, page 193
 Jerry Hopkins, Sojourners No More: the Quakers in the New South, page 817.
 Philip Khoury, Quakers and Compassion, page 394
 Larry H. Ingle, The Quakers in America, page 1098