At the leadership of Ali bin Abi Talib, there was tahkim arbitration between the parties with Ali Mua’wiyah rebel group led by Abu Sufyan bin, which was about to take over the leadership of Ali bin Abi Talib. History tells us that there is an agreement between them to drop the two leaders to the contrary (ie, right hand Mu’awiyah Amr bin Ash asks for peace by raising the Qur’an. But the poorer it is just a ruse by the Mu’awiyah to drop Ali bin Abi Talib.
Problems that occur in the political sphere is then spread on the emergence of theological issues, which then led to different schools or groups of theology. Khawarij group considers that both Ali and Mu’awiyah party as the party has done a great sin, and therefore think they have gone out of Islam. Shi’ite groups loyal followers still regard Ali Ali bin Abi Talib as a legitimate caliph. While the group Murji’ah assert that one who commits a grave sin are still believers, not unbelievers.
Thus, the dispute in a big sin problem that stems from a political problem has shifted to the religious character of the problem. Because of their opinions had almost brought them out of the fundamentals of religion are mutually mengkafirkan, then the scholars have agreed to enter these problems to the area of Islamic theology.
Hijriyah mid-second century, when Muslims began to interact with the civilization and philosophy of Greece and Persia, the Muslims and some theologians began to spark the mind that is the philosophy in matters of religion, and began to provide proof of truth with logical reasons which then led to the flow of theology patterned rationalists and traditionalists.