Shakespeare research paper
During Shakespeares time there were lots of different things that were believed, said, and known. In this topic, we’ll be discussing the so called “Ideas” during Shakespeares time.
Some examples that will be discussed are: The universe, life, supernatural occurrences, etc. During the renaissance, some people still believed the Earth was flat however, educated people did not believe that instead, believed that the Earth was in a spherical universe. The belief that was thought by educated people dates back all the way to the second century A.D. in which a Greek-Egyptian had a great influence of the beliefs the Renaissance inherited. These beliefs would be things related to the nature of the cosmos. A person by the name of Ptolemy collected and organized the beliefs of what earlier writers believed in. After gathering the information he made a detailed model of the universe which he was able to show and explain the movements of the sun and planets. Ptolemy’s explanation and/or belief was as follows: Ptolemy thought that the Earth, was stationary and that the spheres moved and rotated in different directions and at different speeds. It was believed that the elements, which are: Fire, water, earth, and air gave the explanation to what today we call, gravity. There is also the following saying: “Like attracts like: Thus earth falls through fire, air and water, air, on the other hand, rises through water, and water rises from earth in springs.”
The creation of humans back then was thought to go in the following order and was seen as a logical progression: “From light, to the waters, to the earth, to planets, to animals, and finally to humans.”
It was also believed that: “Adam was created first, and Eve from his body, she was created specifically to give him comfort and was to be subordinate to him, to obey him and to accept her lesser status.” During Shakespeare time, if a woman was dominant, it was considered unnatural and a symptom of disorder.
During and after the time of ancient Greeks, philosophers were interested and amazed by the question of the nature of mattar. A suggestion made by Empedocles was that matter was made up by the four basic elements and two basic forces. These elements are; earth, fire, water, and air and the two basic forces are harmany and discard. Later after this suggestion, other writers including a person named Aristole, argued and said that the four elements were related to the following basic qualities; hot, cold, dry, and moist. These qualities were shared by the seven planets ” as all created mattar.” An even further division was made. This division was made between the male and female. The way this was sorted out was by the following:” The males natural temperment is hot and dry.” example of this would be the planets: Mars was considered warlike, which was extreme, and The Sun which was moderate. “The female is cold and moist.” Examples of planets would be Venus, being extreme and The Moon, being moderate.
During the time there was a significant increase of people being able to read and write throughout the population. As much as one third of the male population was able to read however, only one tenth of the female population was able to read. The ones who were able to read came from middle class and/or the aristocracy. There might have been others that came from something lower however, it depended on the family’s occupation and whether they were able and/or wanted to fully educate their child or children. During the seventeenth century were people interested in educating the poor. This was accomplished by making “charity schools”.
A plant by the name of mandrake, was said to look like a human figure and was also said that it would scream if it were uprooted. This plant contained a natural narcotic which brought the attention of superstition.
During the time, an operating flush toilet was invented, this invention would also get rid of the waste however, as much as this was a great invention, it lacked in sanitation and disease was still a problem as it wasn’t very concerned by people during that time period.
A person by the name of Paracelsus did not believe there was four basic elements, instead he thought there are three, mercury, salt, and sulphur. Because of his way of thinking, there were new cures invented, and new drugs made.
Another person by the name of Christopher Columbus found new land. This land was The Caribbean. After the news of his discovery, every country of Europe sent its mariners to explore and find more land.
John Dee was a distinguished mathematician, and did research in Geography. He also researched about the reformation of the calendar. John Dee was also a big believer in “the mystic power of numbers”. He experimented using spiritualism. He tried talking to the archangels by using an assistant and a crystal ball. He considered himself to be a magician in his own time.
Humor had different characteristics, mental and physical. All of this created a system that describes types of personality. Some examples would be: Choleroc is hot and dry. Phlegmatic-melancholic, is cold.
In conclusion, lots of things related to the universe, life, and the supernatural were discovered and found during Shakespeares time.